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Full text of "Monthly performance report : Helio Thermics, Inc. - lot 6"

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Monthly 

Performance 

Report 



HELIO THLRMICS. INC. - LOT 6 

MAY 1979 



kU.S. Department of Energy 




National Solar Heating and 
Cooling Demonstration Program 

National Solar Data Program 



NOTICE 

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United States 
Government. Neither the United States nor the United States Department of Energy, nor 
any of their employees, nor any of their contractors, subcontractors, or their employees, 
make any warranty, express or implied, or assume any legal liability or responsibility for 
the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product or 
process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. 



MONTHLY PERFORMANCE REPORT 

HELIO-THERMICS, INC. 
HOUSE LOT 6 

MAY 1979 

I. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 

Hel io-Thermics Inc., House Lot 6 is one of two instrumented single-family 
residences in Greenville, South Carolina. The home has approximately 1086 
square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating the 
home and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system utilizes 
the attic space as the solar energy collector. The attic roof faces 10 degrees 
west of south and is pitched at an angle of 51 degrees from the horizontal. 
Solar energy enters the attic through a 416-square-foot aperture which is 
double-glazed with corrugated, translucent, fiberglass-reinforced, acrylic 
panels. The interior of the attic is painted black to maximize the absorption 
of solar energy. Warm air accumulates in the peak of the attic roof and 
circulates through the conditioned space or through storage by an air handler. 
Solar energy is stored in an 870-cubic-foot storage bin containing 85,460 
pounds of crushed rock. The bin is located under the house and is insulated 
with 2-inch polystyrene insulation. Cold water is preheated in the attic by 
thermosiphoning water from the 80-gallon preheat tank through a manifold 
system of copper tubes. These tubes are attached to black sheet-metal plates, 
thus enhancing absorption of solar radiation for preheating the water as it 
circulates to and from the preheat tank. Preheated city water is stored in 
the preheat tank and supplied, on demand, to a conventional 80-gallon DHW 
tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating load, a 
water-to-air heat exchanger in the hot air supply-duct provides auxiliary 
energy for space heating. A gas-fired water heater provides auxiliary energy 
for the water-to-air heat exchanger and the DHW. The system, shown schemat- 
ically in Figure 1, has seven modes of operation. 

Mode 1 - Collector- to-Storage : This mode activates when there is no demand 
for space heating and the collector supply-duct temperature is 26°F higher 
than the storage temperature. This mode terminates when the temperature 
difference between the collector and storage is less than 16°F. 



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Mode 2 - Storage-to-Space Heating : This mode activates when space heating is 
required (but is not available from the collector) and the storage tempera- 
ture exceeds the building ambient temperature by 5°F. This mode terminates 
when the building ambient temperature equals the storage temperature or when 
space heating is no longer required. 

Mode 3 - Collector-to-Space Heating : This mode activates when space heating 
is required and the collector supply-duct air temperature is 10°F higher than 
the building ambient air temperature. This mode terminates when the tempera- 
ture difference drops to less than 6°F or the space heating requirement is 
satisfied. 

Mode 4 - Auxiliary Energy-to-Space Heating : This mode activates when space 
heating is required and thermal energy is not available from the collectors 
or storage. An electrical heating element in the not air supply-duct remains 
on until the space heating demand is satisfied. 

Mode 5 - Summer Mode, Passive Cooling Storag e: This mode can be activated 
when the residents wish to store cool air in storage for circulation the next 
day. The air-handler fan activates and an outside air-intake damper opens to 
allow the cool air to circulate through the attic and storage. 

Mode 6 - Summer Mode, Space Cooling : This mode can be activated when cool 
air from storage is desired in the living area. The outside air-intake 
damper closes, the duct to the living area opens, and the air-handler fan 
activates. 

Mode 7 - DHW Preheating : This mode activates when there is a demand for hot 
water. Water is drawn from the conventional DHW tank and replenished with 
heated water from the preheat tank. The DHW subsystem has this one independent 
mode of operation for preheating. 



II. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION 



INTRODUCTION 



Although the site was occupied during May, no attempt was made to collect or 
store solar energy. The DHW thermosi phoning system provided 0.52 million 
Btu of solar energy to the hot water load of 1.3 million Btu. 

There was a space heating demand of 0.32 million Btu which was primarily 
satisifed with auxiliary thermal energy and only a negligible quantity of 
solar energy. The thermal energy provided by conventional methods to satisfy 
the conditioned space heating load also circulates through storage and, in 
effect, heats the storage bin. The same relatively low storage temperatures, 
however, provided a source for cool air during the warm daytime hours. 
Because of the fluctuating temperature, which results in a heating load 
during the night and a cooling load during the day, the system has not been 
fully converted to a summer mode of operation. In a full summer mode, the 
heating requirements are assumed to be insignificant (until fall) and cool 
air is intentionally transferred to storage during the night for daytime use. 



WEATHER CONDITIONS 

During the month, total incident solar energy on the collector array was 
17.4 million Btu for a daily average of 1351 Btu per square foot. This was 
below the estimated average daily solar radiation for this geographical area 
during May of 1438 Btu per square foot for a south-facing plane with a tilt 
of 51 degrees to the horizontal. The average ambient temperature during May 
was 67°F as compared with the long-term average for May of 69°F. 



THERMAL PERFORMANCE 

Col lector - The total incident solar radiation on the colector array for the 
month of May was 17.4 million Btu, although no attempt was made to collect 
or store solar energy during this period. 

Storage - Solar energy was not delivered to storage, although air from the 
living area was circulated through the relatively cool storage bin to provide 
cooler inside ambient air. Therefore, the thermal energy mass in storage 
was intentionally reduced by 0.60 million Btu. This quantity appears as a 
negative value in the "transferral from" column of the attached report (see 
Storage Performance). The average storage temperature for the month was 
71°F. 

DHW Load The DHW subsystem consumed 0.52 million Btu of solar energy and 
at least 0.78 million Btu of auxiliary fossil fuel energy to satisfy a hot 
water load of 1.30 million Btu. Losses from the DHW subsystem are unknown. 
The DHW theroasiphoning subsystem does not consume operating energy, resulting 
in a fossil fuel energy savings of 0.87 million Btu. A daily average of 70 
gallons of DHW was consumed at an average temperature of 142°F delivered 
from the tank. 

Space Heating Load - The space heating subsystem consumed a negligible 
quantity of solar energy and 0.53 million Btu of auxiliary fossil fuel 
energy to satisfy a space heating load of 0.32 million Btu. The space 
heating subsystem consumed a total of 0.06 million Btu of operating energy. 



OBSERVATIONS 

The gas flow totalizer used to quantify the gas consumption is not providing 
valid data. The measurement of auxiliary thermal energy consumption in the 
DHW subsystem will not be available until the problem is corrected. 



ENERGY SAVINGS 

The solar energy system provided a fossil fuel energy savings of 0.88 million 
Btu at an electrical energy operating expense of 0.012 million Btu. 



III. ACTION STATUS 



Boeing will replace the gas totalizer before the next heating season 



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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 



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